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本文摘要:Robots have taken our jobs, learned our chores and beaten us at our own games.机器人抢去大家的工作中,学会了保证家务活,仍在赛事中战胜了大家。

Robots have taken our jobs, learned our chores and beaten us at our own games.机器人抢去大家的工作中,学会了保证家务活,仍在赛事中战胜了大家。Now researchers in Singapore say they have trained one to perform another task known to confound humans: figuring out how to assemble furniture from Ikea.如今,马来西亚的研究工作人员们答复,她们早就顺利地训炼出有机器人执行另一个倍感惊讶的人们所了解的每日任务:要想方法装配宜家家具。A team from Nanyang Technological University programmed a robot to create and execute a plan to piece together most of Ikea’s $25 solid-pine Stefan chair on its own, calling on a medley of human skills to do so. The researchers explained their work in a study published on Wednesday in the journal Science Robotics.贝德理工学院(Nanyang Technological University)的一个精英团队给一个机器人编写成了程序流程,让其创设并执行方案,自我约束装配宜家家居市场价25美元的杉木斯第芬(Stefan)椅的绝大多数,要做这一点务必各种各样人们的专业技能。


研究工作人员周三公布发布在《科学机器人》(Science Robotics)杂志期刊上的研究汇报对她们的研究展开了表述。“If you think about it, it requires perception, it requires you to plan a motion, it requires control between the robot and the environment, it requires transporting an object with two arms simultaneously,” said Dr. Quang-Cuong Pham, an assistant professor of engineering at the university and one of the paper’s authors. “Because this task requires so many interesting skills for robots, we felt that it could be a good project to push our capabilities to the limit.”“想一想,这务必判断力,务必你对行動做出整体规划,务必在机器人和自然环境间的操控,务必另外用2个机械手臂运载一件物件,”范光強(Quang-Cuong Pham,音)博士研究生讲到,他是该学校的水利学终身教授,也是该毕业论文的创作者之一。

“由于此项每日任务对机器人而言务必很多有趣的专业技能,大家确实这不容易是一个将大家的工作能力拓展到酣畅淋漓的创业好项目。”He and his Nanyang colleagues who worked on the study, Francisco Suárez-Ruiz and Xian Zhou, aren’t alone.他与贝德理工学院一道展开此项研究的朋友弗朗西斯科·苏牙-鲁伊斯(Francisco Suárez-Ruiz)及周宪(音)并不是独行者。In recent years, a handful of others have set out to teach robots to assemble Ikea furniture, a task that can mimic the manipulations robots can or may someday perform on factory floors and that involves a brand many know all too well.近些年,别的一些人也刚开始来教机器人装配宜家家具,这一每日任务能够模拟仿真机器人有朝一日必须或是有可能在加工厂里展开的作业者,并且它涉及一个很多人 了解的知名品牌。

“It’s something that almost everybody is familiar with and almost everybody hates doing,” said Ross A. Knepper, an assistant professor of computer science at Cornell University, whose research focuses on human-robot interaction.“它是彻底每一个人都熟识,也是每一个人都喜爱保证的事儿,”宾夕法尼亚大学(Cornell University)电子信息科学终身教授利文斯顿·A·克内珀(Ross A. Knepper)讲到,他的研究关键讨论在内嵌式层面。In 2013, Mr. Knepper was part of a team at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology that presented a paper on its work in the area, describing the “IkeaBot” the team created, which could assemble the company’s Lack table on its own.二零一三年的情况下,克内珀曾是麻省理工大学高校(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)一个研究精英团队的组员,该精英团队公布发布了一篇涉及到行业的毕业论文,对她们创设的“宜家家居机器人”(IkeaBot)展开了描述,这一机器人能够自我约束装配宜家家居的拉科(Lack)桌。But chairs, with backs, stretchers and other parts, pose a more complex challenge; hence the interest of the Nanyang researchers.但装配具备椅、横档以及他构件的桌椅可玩度更高,因而这引起了贝德理工学院研究工作人员的兴趣爱好。

Their robot was made of custom software, a three-dimensional camera, two robotic arms, grippers and force detectors. The team chose only off-the-shelf tools, in order to mirror human biology.她们的机器人由特别是在设计方案的手机软件、一个立体式数码相机、二只机械手臂、手臂器及力传感器组成。为了更好地效仿人们分子生物学,该精英团队随意选择的全是了解的现有专用工具。“Humans have the same hardware to do many different things,” Dr. Pham said. “So this is kind of the genericity that we wanted to mimic.”“人们有某种意义的硬件配置来保证很多各有不同的事儿,”范光強讲到。

“因此这就是我们要想效仿的泛型。”Also like humans, the robot had a little help to start: It was fed a kind of manual, a set of ordered instructions on how the pieces fit together. After that, though, it was on its own.某种意义地,像人们一样,这款机器人在刚开始装配家俱时都没有获得什么帮助:获得给它的是某类手册,一系列有关如何把每个部位装配一起的命令。


在哪以后,它就只靠自身了。The robot proceeded in three broad phases, spread out over 20 minutes 19 seconds.机器人分三个大环节刚开始展开,总共用时二十分钟19秒。First, like humans, it took some time to stare at the pieces scattered before it.最先,像人们一样,它花上了些時间盯住铺满在自身眼前的每个部位。

The robot spent a few seconds photographing the scene and matching each part to the one modeled in its “manual.”机器人花上了几秒钟,对眼下的景色展开相片,把每一个部位与“手册”里的展开给出。Then, over more than 11 minutes, the robot devised a plan that would allow it to quickly assemble the chair without its arms knocking into each other or into the various parts.随后,在11分鐘多的時间里,机器人设计方案了一个计划方案,必须让它在机械手臂不相互之间碰撞或撞各有不同零件的状况下,比较慢将桌椅装配一起。

Finally, it put the plan in motion over the course of nearly nine minutes. The robot used grippers to pick up the wooden pins from a tray and force sensors at its “wrists” to detect when the pins, searching in a spiral pattern, finally slid into their holes. Working in unison, the arms then pressed the sides of the chair frame together.最终,它在近9分钟時间里执行了这一计划方案。机器人运用手臂器从一个架子上里拿着木钉,位于其“腹部”的力传感器不容易以螺旋式方法展开寻找,检验木钉什么时候应当被多次重复使用孔内。

两根机械手臂协同合作,随后将桌椅的架构向内松掉,合在一起。Of course, the robot didn’t succeed right away. There were several failed attempts along the way and researchers tweaked the system before the robot was finally able to assemble the chair on its own.自然,机器人也不是立刻就得到 了成功。期内也是有许多结束,在机器人最终必须自我约束装配桌椅前,研究工作人员系统对展开了许多修改。

The accomplishment was the culmination of three years of work, but the team is eager to see what else it can automate, Dr. Pham said.这一造就是三年期待的結果,但范光強讲到,该精英团队还渴望看到这一机器人能全自动作业者别的什么。With th e help of experts in artificial intelligence, the researchers may be able to create a robot that can build a chair by following spoken directions or by watching someone else do it first, he said. Or maybe, he said, they’ll eventually develop one that assembles furniture in a way that is truly human: by ignoring the manual altogether.他说道,在人工智能技术权威专家的帮助下,科学研究工作人员们很有可能会创设出有一款机器人,它不容易理睬语音命令,或先欣赏他人装配,再行自己来动手能力。又或是,他说道,她们最终能产品研发出有一款能的确以人们的方法装配家具的机器人:基本上忽视装配手册。



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